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Why I do not drink tap water


By Guy Lawrence

“Less than 10 countries world wide fluoridate more than 50% of their water supplies – so why do we have it here in Australia?”

Guy: Unless you live under a rock or watch too much daytime TV, you probably know there’s an ongoing debate on whether we should be drinking our tap water (mainly because of fluoride). From dumbing our intelligence down through our pineal gland to causing cancer, fluoride is under the microscope and it all feels a little X-Files. Just type in ‘fluoride side effects’ into google and you will see what I mean. What does concern me though is that most of Continental Europe does not fluoridate water. You can view the list here. So when Naturopath Tania Flack started to research the state on Sydney/Australia water and came back with this post, I was trying to figure out if I was completely shocked or actually not surprised at all! Either way, this is why I avoid drinking Australian tap water.  Over to Tania…

The state of Australian tap water

Tania: In recent weeks I have started researching fluoride in Australian drinking water after being handed a documentary that made some unbelievable claims. Could it be possible that the fluoride added to our drinking water was not as I had thought, a pharmaceutical grade drug, used to strengthen teeth against decay, but in fact a toxic industrial waste by product sourced from the organophosphate fertiliser industry? So I decided to research the facts for myself. After much time being left on hold to Sydney water, I was put through to a very helpful head technician at their water processing plant, who confirmed every detail as follows….

Hydroflurosilicic Acid

The fluoride added to our drinking water is not the naturally occurring calcium fluoride that is found in trace amounts in water from rivers and streams, it is in fact hydroflurosilicic acid. This is a toxic waste by product sourced from the the two Incitec Pivot organophosphate fertiliser plants in Victoria. The research relating to fluoride and dental has been done on calcium fluoride, while to my knowledge, no specific research has been done on the health effects and dental benefits of hydrofluorosilicic acid. Unlike the fluoride used in your average toothpaste, hydroflurosilicic acid is not a pharmaceutical grade product. It is an unpurified, industrial grade corrosive acid which has been linked in recent studies to several adverse health outcomes. As it is an unpurified substance, trace amounts of other toxins are thought to present. As a corrosive substance it is also known to leech out heavy metals from older style pluming, adding to the environmental load we are exposed to. This is of particular concern when it comes to children, who are at greater risk of the detrimental effects of heavy metals.

“majority of Australians drink fluoridated water every day…”

Fluoride has been added to our drinking water in most parts of Australia for many years now. There are certain areas, such as Byron Bay, who have resisted this, but a majority of Australians drink fluoridated water every day. It was introduced to help prevent dental caries, or tooth decay which is undoubtedly an important public health issue. Internationally fluoridated water is a controversial issue and many European countries have totally rejected the use of fluoride, these include; Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden. In fact less than 10 countries world wide fluoridate more than 50% of their water supplies – so why do we have it here in Australia? There are other substances added to our drinking water in order to make it safe against pathogens which can cause water born disease – and on the whole we have safe access to drinking water in Australia. Fluoride, however does nothing to make our drinking water safer, it is added as a medication for the masses if you like, for the sole benefit of our dental health. The research and science behind the use of fluoride in water is controversial. Most recent large scale studies have found that fluoridated water provides only a minor benefit to dental health, or demonstrates no benefit at all. According to a recent Canadian government review;

The magnitude of fluoridation’s effect is not large in absolute terms, is often not statistically significant and may not be of any clinical significance.”

Most dental researchers now concede that any benefit gained from fluoride is achieved via topical application, such as that you would achieve by using fluoride containing toothpaste or mouth wash. There is no systemic benefit gained from the ingestion of fluoride, in fact it may be harmful.

fluoride tap waterSo why fluoride?

So what is the purpose of ingesting fluoride and what does it do? The levels of fluoride in our drinking water are indisputably low; however in certain circumstances even these levels may warrant concern. For example when fluoridated water is used in cooking, evaporation may concentrate the levels of fluoride in the food. Fluoride is a common ingredient in toothpaste and other dental hygiene products and the combined total amount from all of these sources may exceed what is considered ideal.

And our children?

Perhaps of greatest concern is the fluoride intake in children and babies. Often parents give their children unfiltered drinking water and use it to reconstitute infant formula. This may have potentially detrimental effects on the health of developing children. Dental fluorosis is perhaps the most obvious and well recognized side effects of fluoridated water. It appears as a white mottling and pitting of the tooth surface. Overexposure to fluoride between the ages of 3 months and 8 years causes this. It can be unsightly and lead to costly dental intervention for cosmetic purposes later on in life. It has been shown that the risk of dental fluorosis is increased in children who were fed infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated drinking water as infants. The concentration of fluoride in such formulas is up to 200 times greater than that found in breast milk. Dental fluorosis is  only one of the health concerns related to fluoridated drinking water, other include a potential grater likelihood of bone fractures, bone cancers, joint pain, reduced thyroid activity and detrimental effects on IQ. In fact the US National Research Council has stated that;

It is apparent that fluoride can interfere with functions of the brain

Fluoride exposure in utero and during early infant development  is of particular concern as babies are vulnerable at this time when the blood brain barrier is not fully formed and they are more susceptible to environmental toxins – another reason for pregnant women to be especially careful to drink and cook with filtered water.

What water should I drink?

Unfortunately a majority of commercially available water filters will not remove fluoride, so it is important to do your homework before investing in a filtration system. Look for reverse-osmosis or alumina systems. Drinking spring water is another safer option however, bottled water is less than ideal for the environment and would prove too costly to use for cooking.

So, my top tips for avoiding excessive fluoride exposure are:

  • Filter your water! Do some research and invest in a home filtration system that will reduce your exposure to fluoride
  • Avoid using fluoridated water during pregnancy, make sure your children avoid fluoridated water and never use it to reconstitute infant formula.
  • Use filtered water for cooking, when fluoridated water is used, evaporation may concentrate the levels of fluoride in the food.
  • Wash your fruit and vegetables in filtered water

If you would like to find out more about water fluoridation issues in Australia you can look at the information available at: For international resources you can log onto Guy: Do you drink tap water? What’s your views on fluoride? Filtered water only? Love to hear your thoughts in the comments below as they help benefit us and others… About Tania Flack Tania is a leading Naturopath and Nutritionist, with a special interest in hormonal, reproductive health and cancer support; she believes in an integrated approach to healthcare, including the use of evidence based natural medicine. You can learn more here.

We chat to Nora Gedgaudas: Primal Body, Primal Mind. Beyond the Paleo diet

Podcast Episode #7

By Guy Lawrence Eat fat to lower cholesterol… What about dairy, is it healthy? Can I run an ultra-marathon or CrossFit on a low carb/ high fat or paleo diet? These are just some of the questions we cover in this episode of The Health Sessions as we catch up with Nora Gedgaudas, best selling author of Primal Body, Primal Mind: Beyond the Paleo Diet. I’ve time coded the bullet points so you jump straight to the bits that interest you most in the video.

But when you’ve got the time, it’s well worth kicking back and watching the whole video as the content is invaluable!

Download or subscribe to us on iTunes here.

downloaditunesIn this weeks episode:-

    • Why we shouldn’t be taking cholesterol lowering drugs
    • Why cholesterol is a good thing [011:42]
    • Can kids eat a paleo diet [029:50]
    • From ultra-marathon & CrossFit on a low carb/ high fat diet [035:43]
    • What Nora Gedgaudas eats in a day [1:00:53]
    • Is dairy healthy? [1:06:50]
    • and much more…

Did you enjoy this interview with Nora? Would you like to share your own journey with us? Love to hear your thoughts in the Facebook comments section below… Guy


Hi. This is Guy Lawrence and I’m with Stuart Cooke and I’m also joined with a lovely guest today, Nora Gedgaudas. And Nora, I have to say, I met a nutritionist last week. We caught up for a cup of tea and we were chatting and I said, “Do you know of Nora? I’m interviewing her next week.” And she just got really excited and, basically, she said, “Oh, I went to see Nora two years ago when she came to Sydney and I worked with her. She blew my mind.” Nora: Oh, really? Guy: Yeah. Nora: Oh, that’s great. Guy: And I have to agree. So, honestly, it’s an honor to have you today. Now, what we thought we’d do; we actually put out a couple of questions on Facebook to ask our audience if they have any questions for Nora and we thought we’d run through them. Nora: OK. Guy: But before we start that, and I’m sure you’ve been asked this a thousand times, can you just tell us a little bit about yourself. Who’s Nora Gedgaudas, and, more importantly, who you came to writing such an awesome book, “Primal Body, Primal Mind”? Nora: Well, it all started in a little hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 10th, nineteen sixty. . . No. I’m not going to go back that far.
My interest in nutritional science really goes back a good 30 years or more now. Actually, more than that now. So, it’s been a passion, kind of from the get-go, for me. But over the years, my interests in nutrition changed from thing to thing a little bit and I never really had an underlying really, kind of, foundational way of looking at things. I mostly looked at from the standpoint of minutiae, lots of people were promoting vegetarianism is sort of the ultimate healthy diet. Which I attempted and it didn’t do well for me at all. And I was in lot of denial about that for awhile, as I think a lot of people probably are. It just seemed; I was really determined that that should be healthy for me, but it ultimately wasn’t. I developed an eating disorder. My depression deepened. And eventually. . . And I couldn’t stop thinking about eating meat. And eventually I just sort of transitioned out of that, feeling a little bit, maybe, like I’d failed at what was supposed to be the healthiest diet and then went on with things. And the eating disorder clearer up, and eventually, with dietary changes and ultimately some neurofeedback work, the depression lifted for me and that’s been permanent for more than 15 years. But, at any rate, I’ve led a lot of different lives in this lifetime. I’ve worn a lot of different hats. I’ve done many different things. And one of the hats that I’ve had on for awhile was work in behavioral wildlife science. And I spent a whole summer, many people know this story now, that I spent a whole summer living less than 500 miles from North Pole with a family of wild wolves. The four-legged variety. And during that time period, you know, I was living on a frozen tundra for an entire summer, and it was still quite cold, generally below freezing, sometimes below zero, wind chills coming up off the fjords and off the Arctic Ocean. But, you know, it was relatively green but still permafrost. And I’m sitting there looking across this vast landscape while the wolves slept and slept and kind of contemplating that landscape, it seemed so primitive, in a way. So, “primal,” if you will. And I looked at it thinking that it really was probably not dissimilar from what a lot of northern Europe might have looked like during the throes of the last ice age when Cro-Magnon humans were migrating across North America 40,000 years ago. That there may have been a lot of clarity to some of these landscapes. And the whole time I’m sitting there, I was just craving fat-rich foods, which I had not been eating prior to going up there. But while I was sitting there on the tundra, I was kind of obsessing about it. And it wasn’t necessarily the best selection of high-fat foods. I know we had a lot of non-perishable things like, oh, I don’t know, aged cheeses and salami and things like that. But once a week we made a pilgrimage to a weather station where there was a mess hall there. And we’d be there at 3 in the morning when everyone else was asleep, and the OIC there said that we could, if there was something laying out that we were interested in eating, that we could have at it. Well, I couldn’t stop thinking about [XXbackground noiseXX]. I . . . You have cars in Australia. I just heard a car go by. Guy: We do. Nora: Anyway. . . Yeah, but you drive on the wrong side of the road. You guys gotta do something about that. Stuart: Well, be careful when you come over. Nora: I was on the freeway one day and sitting there in the passenger side and I look over and there’s a dog sitting in what, to me, looked like the driver’s seat. It was something akin to what an LSD trip must be like. I don’t know. Guy: Do the dogs over there not drive? Are they not allowed to drive cars? Nora: Well, you know, dogs and cats really only get partial privileges over here. You have to let them think they’re running the show, but. . . And they think that they are. But, anyway, with respect to the wolves and that time there, I ate; I went through quite a bit of butter while I was at that weather station. I would make a piece of toast, which I was still eating in those days, and then I would put about that much butter on there. The toast was a vehicle for the butter, you know? And by the end of the summer I’d lost something like close to 30 pounds. And, mind you, there was very, very little physical activity. Mostly what we did was we sat near the wolves’ den and watched them do whatever it is they were doing. We tried not to move around too much, in fact, because if we got up and started walking around near the den that was sort of upsetting to them. We had certain; there were certain, sort of, standards of conduct that they expected of us when we were in their home vicinity, and so we tried to honor that. And if we messed around with that too much, it was unsetting. So we sat, generally, quietly and watched them. And the one time we were allowed to move was when they were on the move. Then we’d follow them on their hunts and whatever else. So, anyway, and when we did so, it was on a four-wheeler. So, the ground was very hummocky. And a lot of just, kind of; it was very, very bumpy ground and difficult to traverse on foot. In other words, there wasn’t a whole lot of exercise. I certainly wasn’t eating a low-fat diet. And the only other factor, of course, was that it was fairly cold. Although it got as high as what would be 60 degrees Fahrenheit was the warmest day that we had in the dead of summer. I actually got in a pair of shorts that day just to take a couple of pictures and then put my insulated stuff back on. But anyway, that taught me something. I looked back at that and I thought, wow, you know. Back at home I had been doing a lot of all of these vegetables and salads and I’d been juicing, and I didn’t have a single craving for any of those things while I was up there. My cravings were all for fat-rich foods. And I thought, our ancestors would have had to have been pretty similar, because fat is really the primary fuel that we use to keep warm, which helps explain, in part, why I lost so much. nora_gedgaudesBut also it turns out that if you want to lose fat, it helps to eat fat. And so I never really forgot that lesson. But it really took until I ran across the work of Weston Price to start to connect the dots a little bit more and realize that it wasn’t just the Inuit that would have eaten a high-fat diet. It would have been all primitive cultures, for the most part, that would have coveted fat as a very; as a sacred foot, literally. The most sacred foods in all cultures were the most fat-rich foods. And it suddenly started to make sense to me. And then what the Weston Price work did was it dialed me in to the idea of looking at diet and health from more an ancestral or an evolutionary perspective. So, that led me down the paleo path, so to speak. And then I began looking at things like the hormone leptin and recognizing that that was actually a fat sensor and something that made all of the sense in the world to me. That, of course, the most critical hormone in the body would be a fat sensor, because fat, to our ice age physiology, means survival. And everything boils down to survival. There’s nothing more important than that. So, if we don’t eat fat, your body considers that a problem. In fact, it is a problem, not just from an energetic standpoint but from the standpoint of fat-soluble nutrients, that they require the dietary fat in order to properly absorb it and be utilized correctly. And if we’re not eating fat, your body’s gonna gosh darn well become really efficient at synthesizing it from whatever else it has available. Mainly carbohydrate. Guy: Why do you think that message has gotten lost, you know, in today’s society? I can give you a good example. I know somebody that works in the medical industry, let’s say, and is actually on cholesterol-lowering drugs and is on a very low-fat diet and is completely paranoid about eating any fat whatsoever, you know. And that blows me away, really. Nora: Well, there was, in the term you used, “medical industry.” Statins are a $29-billion-a-year industry. And the irony is that they have absolutely no use in human medicine whatsoever. I can’t think of a single thing that statins do for anybody, other than deprive them of one of the most essential substances in their body, which is cholesterol. And there isn’t “bad cholesterol” and “good cholesterol.” There’s only one type of cholesterol. There are different carrier mechanisms for it, like high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins, but high-density lipoprotein is a high-density lipoprotein. It’s a carrier. And so low-density lipoproteins take cholesterol, whether processed by or synthesized by your liver, and move it out to the periphery of your body where it’s used for all kinds of things. There are lists and lists of things as long as your arm of all kinds of things that your body uses cholesterol for. In fact, it’s such an important substance, every cell in your body has a means of manufacturing its  own supply if it absolutely has to. Its complex, multi-step process the body doesn’t do very efficiently, but it speaks to the underlying importance of this particular substance. And so, once the body has used up or spent that cholesterol in some form, then high-density lipoproteins come along and sweep up that cholesterol from the periphery and bring it back to the liver in order to be recycled back into, you guessed it, low-density lipoproteins again. LDL and HDL are just carrier mechanisms. Now, what I see cholesterol as is a; it’s an indicator. It’s an intermediate indicator that can kind of give you some general ideas of certain things that may be going on. If I see cholesterol that is particularly elevated or particularly depressed, then I worry much more about somebody whose cholesterol is too low. In our terminology, that would be anything below about 150 milligrams per deciliter. In your terminology, gosh, I should have looked that up; I need to look that up before I come out there. Although it’s interesting, because the optimal is actually somewhere between 5 millimolars to, let me see here, to. . . There was a study done in Norway called the Hunt 2. It was a meta-analysis, actually. And if your listeners don’t know what a meta-analysis study is, it’s a study that takes a whole bunch of other studies and it screens them for corroborative data to either prove or disprove a theory. It takes a whole bunch of different cholesterol studies to try to figure out, you know, is there something to this or isn’t there? What these researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology found, looking at over 52,000 subjects that were part of this study (that’s a very highly, statistically significant study), between the ages and 20 and 74. And they had adjusted for factors like age, smoking, and blood pressure. What the researchers found were that women with so-called “high” cholesterol, which would be in excess of about 270 milligrams per deciliter, which here is viewed as, “Oh my God, get on statins now!” actually had a 28-percent lower mortality risk than women with so-called low cholesterol, which they called under 200. Guy: That’s amazing. Stuart: Crikey. Nora: So, for women, there was literally a zero correlation between cholesterol of any number (it didn’t matter how high it got) and any elevated risk for cardiovascular disease or stroke whatsoever. So, the risk for heart disease, cardiac arrest, and stroke also declined as cholesterol levels rose. And you have to understand, cholesterol goes about patching up lesions. It’s your body’s version of duct tape. And it’s also an antioxidant. So, if cholesterol is there, what it tells me is that there is something going on for which cholesterol is actually needed. It doesn’t tell you what’s going on. It just says, “OK. The engine light’s on.” And by the way, in this particular study, the lowest coronary heart disease risk was actually seen between, in your language, between 5 millimolars and 6.9 millimolars. The lowest coronary heart disease risk. And that includes stroke. Guy: I think you used the analogy of the fireman putting out the fire, wasn’t it, with the cholesterol? Nora: With the statin, in order to get rid of cholesterol, it is really quite akin to getting rid of the firemen who are coming to put out the fire and blaming them for the fire. And in men, by the way, there were about 24,000 or so men that were included in the Hunt 2 study, there was a whole U-shaped curve. The lowest risk for all the causes of death was seen in the 5 to 5.9 millimolar category, compared to those with serum cholesterol under 5, those in the 5 to 5.9 category enjoyed 23 percent, 20 percent, 6 percent

. So, in other words, and in folks over 50, where cholesterol had no relationship, by the way, to cardiovascular disease or total mortality, and also other studies as well. I have so many other studies that I’ve cited. But it showed that in older people, elevated cholesterol was actually predictive of greater longevity. It’s literally a longevity marker. But, you know, and what the researchers concluded from that meta-analysis study of over 52,000 people was, “Our study provides an updated epidemiological indication of possible errors. . .” You think? “. . . in the cardiovascular disease risk algorithms of many clinical guidelines. If our findings are generalizable, clinical and public health recommendations regarding the ‘dangers’ of cholesterol should be revised.” Yeah, I think so. “This is especially true for women, for whom moderately elevated cholesterol by current standards may prove to be not only harmless but even beneficial. So, to me, cholesterol is an indicator. But to the medical industry, cholesterol is a $29-billion-a-year-business. Stuart: It will never change. Nora: You know; in the form of statin medications. And physicians are taught by the drug companies. Guy: For anyone that’s watching this, then, that could be on statins and is worried about their cholesterol, like, what would be the best approach to go? Because obviously doing what they’re told, they think they’re doing the right thing. Nora: Well, I don’t actually start thinking, “OK. This person’s cholesterol’s kind of getting a little edgy, you know, and I’m not worried about the cholesterol per se. I’m never worried about the cholesterol by itself, per se, at all. And I only look at HDL and LDL as indications of what kind of a diet they’re likely eating. If their HDL, and I only know my own United States terms for this; our measurements, anything below about 55 tells me that I’ve probably got a carbivore on my hands. You know, somebody who is eating a high-carbohydrate diet. They’re eating too many carbohydrates, which tends to depress high-density lipoproteins. But if it’s in excess of 55, then I know, OK, well, there’s kind of a window there between about 55 and 75. And if it’s in that range, it’s like, OK, I’m not too; their diet is probably reasonably OK. However, if it starts climbing much over 75, unless it’s always been high, there’s some familial genetic anomaly this way where people just have naturally really high HDL. But in a person who, you know, has been seeing the HDL climb up in a range that’s sort of new, anything over 75, 80 implies to me some sort of non-specific form of inflammation someplace in the body. Again, cholesterol is there to do a job. And so there may be many things that will elevate it. If you have somebody with depressed thyroid function, I promise you they’re gonna have elevated cholesterol. That always elevates cholesterol. And my eyes are darting around the blood chemistry all over the page to see what might be correlating with that. And any kind of chronic infection is going to elevate your cholesterol. Inflammation elevates cholesterol. Certain things like certain forms of dysbiosis in the gut will elevate cholesterol. Even stress can elevate cholesterol; chronic stress. So, all of these things may potentially elevate it, but be happy that it’s elevated. Cholesterol’s doing its job. Your job, at that point, is to lift the hood up on the car, look underneath and see why your body feels the need to produce more. Don’t worry about that number in and of itself. It doesn’t really mean anything by itself. You’ve got to dig a little. What it tells you is, Oh, OK, you may want to dig a little deeper and see if there’s something else that needs addressed. The point never to beat cholesterol down with a club. Stuart: That’s right. I like the analogy of the car and the hood. It’s so much like a little warning light. You’d probably want to check the probably without taking the bulb out. Nora: Well, exactly. And what are statins effectively doing? They’re unscrewing the bulb, you know, and saying, “See? All better.” And you have no idea; no idea what these things have done. By the way, the risk of problems with things like food-borne illness and other infections actually increase on statin drugs. There are a lot of potentially serious side effects of statin drugs. One of the most egregious side effects is that they invariably totally deplete your CoQ10 levels. CoQ10 is the single more important nutrient for the heart. And it’s actually also known as ubiquinone because it’s ubiquitous in the body. It’s in every single organ and tissue. You can’t have normal metabolism, normal energy production, normal mitochondrial function without healthy CoQ10 levels. And, as CoQ10 gets depleted, guess what the first organ in the body to suffer the effects of that is? The heart. So, one of the things that’s increasing as a result of statin use is heart failure. Also, dementia. Fully 25 percent of all the cholesterol is actually found up here in the brain. And we need to have it there, because it’s absolutely essential for the normal, healthy functioning of the human brain. And people who are on statins for long periods of time start developing memory issues, may even start exhibiting symptoms of dementia. And so I see absolutely no use at all. Now, there are some people that sit up and get kind of a little hot under the collar and say, “Well, but it’s anti-inflammatory. You know, statins are anti-inflammatory.” No, they’re not. What statins are known to do is depress CRP levels. Now, that’s supposed to be good, because, you know, C-reactive protein is an acute reactivity marker. It’s an inflammation marker in the body. You want lower CRP levels. However, CRP is manufactured in the liver. And if you’ve been on statins a good, long while, what happens is statins do damage to the liver. And after awhile, enough damage has been done to the liver that the liver cannot produce CRP anymore. Again, somebody has unscrewed the light bulb, is what is happening. Guy: Yeah, right. Nora: But it’s not anti-inflammatory. It may have exactly the opposite problem. You know, CoQ10 is such an important antioxidant. You deplete that, you’re at all sorts of risk for the damage that free radicals can do. And your heart is most at-risk. You know, the TV commentator, Tim Russert; I don’t know if you guys ever knew about him. He was a political commentator here in the states. He had perfectly normal cholesterol levels but his doctors put him on statin drugs preventatively. He dropped dead of heart failure. And as far as anybody knew, he didn’t necessarily have cardiovascular disease. And my own father, of course, was a victim. He was not on statins. But he was always extremely proud of his low cholesterol. He dropped dead of a heart attack. More than half of people who drop dead of heart attacks have normal or below-normal cholesterol levels. So, there’s almost; there’s a very poor correlation between elevated cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk, and yet these drugs persist because the money persists. And the public has been sort of taken in by this now over a period of; there was the whole lipid hypothesis that came along in the ’50s and ’60s, right around the time that vegetable oils were getting in vogue in margarine. And animals being vilified. And there was a hypothesis that dietary fat caused heart disease. well, there was a researcher by the name of Ancel Keys that; I call him “researcher” tongue-in-cheek because he basically cherry-picked data from the World Health Organization because something called the Seven Countries Study, and he selected a number, seven countries, where there appeared to be some epidemiological correlation or observational correlation between high-fat diets and rates of heart disease. However, he ignored data from 20-some-odd other countries that either were inconclusive that way or showed exactly the opposite. He cherry-picked data, published it in the Journal of the American Medical Association, got himself on the cover of Time, and became the father of what is known as the Lipid Hypothesis. And there has been a concerted effort ever since to promulgate this idea that somehow animal fats, which we’ve been eating for, it turns out now, in my book I say 2.6 million years; there’s new evidence to point to 3.39 million years, you know, we’ve been eating animal fats to no apparent detriment until about 1911. You know, if you graduated medical school in 1910, you never heart of coronary thrombosis. And in 1911, the first four cases of coronary thrombosis were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association as this strange, anomalous thing called “heart disease” that seemed to be occurring. And it appeared to be isolated cases. And there was a physician at the time named Dr. Paul Dudley White. He had been personal physician to President Eisenhower. And he took an interest in all of this. He thought, wow, what an interesting phenomenon that’s emerging. And he selected it as his area of specialty in medicine. And his colleagues thought he was nuts. They said: Why would you waste your time in a specialty area that was so unprofitable? And by the 19. . .  in no time flat that ended up becoming one of the primary causes of death. But, again, dietary fat is something that we had been eating for millennia and what had actually happened was that our intake of animal fats was going down at that time, and our intake of vegetable oils, which was a very new food to us as a species, were starting to skyrocket. And particularly these hydrogenated fats like margarines. And our carbohydrate intake, of course, the food industry was rising to power at that time and we were starting to eat a lot of processed carbohydrates and things. Guy: I mean, if you would look at what the next generation as well has been brought up on eating, it’s kind of scary. Because I know you’ve got concerns. Stuart: I have, yeah. Absolutely. Because we’re talking about, you know, heart disease and cholesterol and lots of people think, well, I won’t worry about that till I’m old. But what about the young generation? Because I’ve got three kids and I wanted to know whether there were any special considerations for youngsters for this primal way of eating. Because I have heard that, “Oh, kids need more carbohydrates because they’re so active.” And, of course, there’s a myriad of children’s products now on the market that are so processed and offer so little nutrients but seem to be very popular. Nora: Absolutely. And, again, you kind of have to follow the money on this. Look, you know, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s pyramid, right? USDA Department of Agriculture‘s pyramid. Oh, you know, “11 servings of grains a day.” Grains are an entirely new food to our species within the last 10,000 years. That’s less than .4 percent of our history have we been actually consuming any significant amount of grains or legumes in our diet, and yet we’ve changed; genetically, we’ve altered within that same time period perhaps .05 percent. And what the evidence seems to be suggesting that we’re actually over time now becoming less adapted to those foods and not more. The incidence, for instance, of full-blown celiac disease, which only constitutes about 12 percent of the totality of what can be termed an immunological reactivity to gluten; only about 12 percent of those cases are actually hard-core celiac disease. The incident of celiac disease alone has risen over 400 percent in just the last 50 years. So, we’re not become more adapted to these foods; we’re becoming less adapted these foods. A carbohydrate-based diet is a new phenomenon to the human species. But children actually; there is not a living. . . OK; of the three major macronutrients (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates), the only one for which there is no human dietary requirement established anywhere in any medical text anywhere is carbohydrates. We can manufacture all the glucose that we need from a combination of protein and fat in the diet. We store little bit of glycogen, you know, in the liver and in the muscles, and we also have the capacity for something called gluconeogenesis, which is just making glucose. We can do that very efficiently. So, we’re actually designed, and have always been designed, to derive our primary; so, there are two sources of fuel that we have available to use as human beings that we can rely on for primary energy. One is either sugar or glucose and the other is fat in the form of either ketones or free fatty acids. That’s it. So, either sugar or fat. Now, what do you suppose the more efficient source of fuel is? Sugar is like kindling in the human body. It burns anaerobically. It’s fermentative and anaerobic. And it’s most efficiently used when we’re in a fight-or-flight situation when we’re either trying to run away from something that’s trying to eat us, or we are attempting to exert ourselves in some profound sort of way. And so carbohydrates are basically our version of kindling. And you can look at brown rice and beans and whole grains and things like that as fundamentally being like twigs on that metabolic fire. If all we’re doing is looking at carbohydrates from the standpoint of the energy that they provide us with, they’re basically kindling. Now, your white rice, your bread, your pasta, your potatoes. Those are much more (nice to see you again); those are much akin to being like paper on the metabolic fire. And things like sugary drinks, sodas, and alcohol, and, I’m sorry to say, including beer, ‘eh mate; including that old Foster’s lager, is like throwing alcohol or lighter fluid on that same fire. And if you had to heat your house using nothing but kindling, you could certainly do it. But you would be pretty much preoccupied all day long with where the next handful of fuel was coming from to stoke that fire. If, instead, you were just sort of throwing a big log, a big fat  log, on that fire, you’re free to go about your business. And every once in awhile after however many hours you peer in the wood stove and, “Oh! The fire’s burning down,” well, just throw another log on the fire. And you can kind of go on with your business. You can sleep through the night, you don’t have ups and downs in that energy. It’s just even burning and long-lasting. That’s what fat is for us, and that is the most efficient fuel for everything that we do while we’re breathing oxygen and, you know, when we’re in an aerobic state. And so that’s most of what we do. We don’t need rocket fuel just to kind of go to work every day, unless your job is, I don’t know, a fast; Olympic sprinting. But even then, you know, you may be able to get by with whatever glycogen you have stored in order to get through that race. You don’t necessarily have to eat extra fuel or store it. Or eat extra, anyway, to do that. Stuart: Because I know, Guy, you had a question, didn’t you, on that very topic? Guy: Yeah. I got a question from a Dan Bennett and it’s very much related. “As an ultra-endurance athlete, I’ve been curious if it’s possible to compete in such events without carbs that are traditionally used in this sport.” Nora: You’re better-equipped to excel in that sport, especially endurance sports, because endurance sports; you’re burning oxygen. You know? Endurance sports require long-sustained energy. And carbohydrates can’t provide long-sustained energy. We can’t store more than about 2,000 calories’ worth of carbohydrate. Now, some elite athletes may train themselves to store a bit more than that, you know, by challenging themselves and carb-loading and whatever over time. But it takes work to increase that capacity. But that’s not a natural capacity for us. Carbohydrates were not necessarily a readily-available fuel for us for most of our evolutionary history. You know, we had meat and fat and we had the above-ground types of plant foods. We didn’t have fire for cooking or we weren’t cooking our food universally instead of many more like 50,000 years ago. So, things like; and also a lot of starchy roots and tubers. Apart from the fact that we can’t process them at all when they’re raw, they just pass through us as unusable, they need to be heated. You have to cook them very thoroughly in order for the starch in them to become available to us. And that’s a lot of effort for something that doesn’t yield a fraction of the energy that fat would. So, for endurance athletes anyway, there is nothing more efficient than being a fat-burner. But the transition from being a sugar-burner to a fat-burner can take three to six weeks to pull off. There is a process. Your body has to kind of acclimate itself to a dependence, to a primary dependence, on a different sort of fuel. Stuart: So is that training the part of the body that burns ketones, essentially? Nora: Yeah. Ketones and free fatty acids; the brain uses pretty exclusively ketones. When you go into very well-adapted ketogenic state, which takes a little bit to get there, but once you’re there, your brain relies almost entirely upon ketones and will only turn to glucose if there’s some, yet again, extreme thing happening that it needs the glucose for. But, again, your brain can do nearly everything it needs to do on nothing but ketones. Guy: What about for, like, myself and Stewie, CrossFit. I’m not sure if you’re familiar with CrossFit. Nora: Sure. It’s big in the States. Guy: And they promote paleo as well and it’s obviously short, explosive exercise. The workouts are generally pretty short in time. Could it be the same; just become ketone-adapted exactly the same principles? Nora: Absolutely. Absolutely. We’re designed for short bursts of exertion, and we should have more than enough glycogen stored up and more than enough ability to generate glucose if we need to for that anaerobic activity. And we should be able to replenish that pretty readily. Now, you know, where I’m still sitting on the fence a little bit is where it comes to, say, Olympic-level elite athletes, say, sprinters, who are training for extremes of exertion. Not the endurance sports. Endurance sports, fat’s got that down. Fat always should own endurance sports. But when it comes to the sprinters that do these extremes of exertion; and it’s not just for one event. But what these people do in order to train for these events is they work out all day long. I mean, they’re doing something very unnatural in order to perform at a certain level at these events. And if one of our ancestors got up against one of these people in an Olympic event, they’d probably give them a very healthy run for their money. But our ancestors would have looked at their training regimen like they were nuts. You know: “What are you doing?” And I’m not saying they shouldn’t do that for those events, but it’s not something that we evolved doing. Our ancestors would have thought that was a ridiculous expenditure of energy and they would have thought there are better things to do with energy, you know? Hunting and gathering and spending time with family. It was; the extremes of stress that professional athletes put themselves under, you know, might demand something a little bit unnatural. But for your average weekend warrior and your CrossFitters and your people trying to excel at everyday sports, even bodybuilding, for that matter. A ketogenically well-adapted state actually spares your branched-chain amino acids. You’re not as likely to burn them for fuel. And the rate-limited factor for protein synthesis are those branched-chain amino acids, leucine. And if, after a workout, you’ve had sufficient protein to replenish that, the XXaudio problemXX isn’t going to make you any more anabolic at that point. There’s really no need. Stuart: Well, on that subject of carbs, I’ve got a question regarding myself. So, Guy and myself recently were tested; our DNA. Nora: Uh-oh. What was it related to? Stuart: Well, we were intrigued as to a kind of; we’re almost living in a one-size-fits-all world and were speaking to a good friend of ours, a naturopath, who said, well, look, we’ve got some; I’ve got a crowd that I’m really interested in looking at DNA testing for your specific body type, and they might be able to give you some pointers for the rest of your life that will help you out. So, we were tested and we had radically different results. And I’ve been advised to follow a low GI diet. And, for me, conventionally would be grains, legumes, and I’m just wondering how would I do that when thinking about the Primal Diet? Nora: Well, leave out the grains and legumes. That’s the lowest GI diet of all. Stuart: So, really, just, again, such as meat? Fats? Nora: Again, there is nobody; I don’t care what your DNA tells you, there’s nobody living or breathing on this planet that has a grain or legume deficiency. There is no such thing. These are new to our species. And they contain immunologically, potentially antigenic compounds. In other words, immunologically reactive compounds and lectins and things like that that in some people trigger autoimmune disorders, but can cause people a lot of grief. There’s nobody that is walking around with a starch deficiency. There just isn’t. And I know it’s very PC to say, “Well, everybody’s different.” Well, that’s a popular viewpoint, but guess what? We’re so much more alike than we are unalike. You know? We all have the same; our body relies on the same complement of nutrients in general in order to function. We all have a necessity, a blood pH of between 7.35 and 7.45. You know, we all have certain basic, fundamental requirements. We all produce cholesterol. We all need fat-soluble nutrients in order to function. And, again, there are some people who may tolerate some of these foods better than others; starchy foods. Or things like grains and legumes. But there is nobody in my personal view for whole they are an actual health food. And I realize that’s a controversial statement. But, again, there are foreign proteins in these things that can potentially compromise us. And one of the things that I am seeing now, as an epidemic here in where I’m at, is autoimmune processes. There are people walking around with autoimmune antibodies that are inappropriate levels of autoimmune antibodies than not. It’s literally that epidemic. And autoimmune diseases are seen as relatively rare because people don’t get diagnosed with them very often. But what people fail to recognize is that the standards of diagnosis for autoimmune disease are abysmal. That in order to be diagnosed with celiac disease, and in some countries it’s even more stringent than this, just celiac disease being the most common of the autoimmune disorders out there, there are villi; something called villi lining your small intestine. They look like these finger-like projections. And they’re basically increased surface area in which you absorb your nutrients. And what happens over the course of celiac disease is this ends up eroding down and becoming this. So, basically, until this has totally become this, until your shag carpeting has turned into Berber, you are not diagnosable with celiac disease until that has occurred. So, if you go and you get an intestinal biopsy and your gut looks like this, you’re fine. Have some bread. That’s the standard diagnosis. Now, with, say, if you’re producing antibodies against your own adrenal tissue, and lots of people are, if you have, say, 45 percent obstruction of your adrenal tissue, I promise you you will notice it in every part of the way you feel and function in your life. But you will not be diagnosable with Addison’s Disease until you have had a minimum of 90 percent tissue destruction to your adrenals. Then you’re diagnosable. So, autoimmune diseases. . . And, if you have; the second most common, actually, autoimmune disease in the world right now, and although it’s debatable depending on who you talk to, which is more prevalent between that and celiac disease, is autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of all low-functioning thyroid cases are autoimmune in nature. And yet it’s almost never diagnosed. People, they go to their doctors: “Oh, look. Your TSH is high, your T4 is low.” Whatever. “We’ll put you on some Thyroxin or whatever and call it good. And that makes for prettier labs but it may not change the person’s symptoms any. And it doesn’t; it is a rare thing for a physician to actually test for thyroid antibodies, and the reason it’s so rare is that whether it’s diagnosed or undiagnosed, conventional medicine has absolutely nothing to offer you. Nothing. They’ll treat it exactly the same way they’ll treat it if you’re just a primary hypothyroid case. They’ll just put you on medication. But I’m here to tell you that if your thyroid is producing antibodies, you have an autoimmune thyroid condition. Your primary problem isn’t thyroid. It’s immune. And it has to be addressed on that level if you have any hope whatsoever of leading a reasonable symptom-free and normal life. And yet it’s completely not; they don’t care. They’re completely unimpressed with that diagnosis. Stuart: It’s back to taking the light bulb out again, isn’t it? Nora: It is. Well, but, you know, it’s like, “OK, so the light’s on. So what?” You know? They don’t know what to with it anyway. There are no medications with which to treat an autoimmune thyroid. But I’m here to tell you that there’s never been more that’s been understood about the mechanisms behind what drives autoimmunity. And those mechanisms are very, very easily managed in a very comfortably natural way. There are dietary things that can help manage those mechanisms that drive autoimmunity, that can help mitigate immune polarity and inflammation and things like that. And there are supplemental things that a person can do also in order to manage their immune function. There’s no cure of an autoimmune disease once it’s taken root. Or an autoimmune process. Most of us have autoimmune processes occurring. Whether or not they ever are diagnosable as a disease down the line depends on how far they’re allowed to advance. And what we do to either perpetuate it or to bring it under control. And there’s only one lab in the world, too, that’s doing that type of immunologic testing and I’m sorry to say it’s here in the States. I’ve actually had a couple of people from Australia fly over here just to get that testing done; to get answers to questions that nobody else was ever able to offer them. Stuart: Amazing. Guy: It’s scary. Nora: The medical industry is; somewhere around World War II, medicine ceased to become a profession and became an industry. And it’s largely driven by the interests of pharmaceutical companies. That’s who funds the medical schools and that’s where medical doctors get their training. And I do not mean to sound disparaging of hard-working and very well-meaning MDs. And there are some MDs out there that totally get this. I have a friend who’s a medical oncologist practicing at a facility; at a medical center outside Philadelphia. And he has found, actually, that the exact diet that I promote in my book, which amounts to, fundamentally, a fat-based ketogenic diet, is the single most therapeutic diet; the most preventative and the most therapeutic diet for cancers. As well as diabetes and heart disease and kidney disease and neurological problems and pretty well you-name-it. And yet because there’s no profit in just simply making a dietary change, he runs into; he’s done peer-reviewed research but it’s like pulling teeth trying to shop around for people willing to publish that work. Because it doesn’t toe the party line. Stuart: Yeah, I can believe that. Guy: I’ve got a Facebook question that kind of ties into what we’ve been talking about, because we’re talking about the stresses on the body of food. And so this question is from Darren Manser. And he says: “Modern-day stress is different compared to Paleolithic stress due to the fact that the stress these days is likely to end your life yet more continuous. Is there anything we need to be aware of to help accommodate continual stress of modern-day life?” Nora: That’s a very, very great question, actually. Because our stress levels are so much worse than anything our ancestors even knew. I mean, yeah, they had droughts and floods and they had to endure the extremes of an ice age here and there or volcanic eruption. Give me that any day over what we have to put up with with our water, food supply, our depleted soils. EMF pollution. Radiation from Fukushima up here in Northern Hemisphere. That’s a huge problem up here right now. You guys are quite fortunate to be where you are. I mean, eventually you’ll be dealing with it too but you guys have a bit of a reprieve. And things. . . Give me the throes of the ice age any day to dealing with Monsanto. You know? And what we’re dealing with are largely corporate interests running everything. And so people today have much more to worry about and we’re dying. . . Actually, today, the children are expected to live not as long as their parents did. And 30 years old is the new 45. Because people are developing diseases of aging at least 15 years earlier now. These are realities. Guy: It seems no one dies of natural causes anymore. Nora: Well, yeah. What’s natural causes? But yeah. So, the three top causes are death are: cardiovascular disease, cancer, and the number three cause of morbidity and mortality in the entire industrialized world is autoimmunity right now, whether people are aware of it or not. Collectively, as a whole, autoimmune diseases are the number three cause of death. And, again, morbidity, you know, problems. And what’s also interesting, though, is the number one cause of death in a person with celiac disease is actually a cardiovascular event. The number two cause of death in a person with celiac disease is malignancy. So, there are tie-ins to the number one and two causes of mortality as well. And there’s new evidence, actually, I just stumbled across the other day to suggest that the onset of atherosclerosis is actually an autoimmune process. That was news to me. That was a little bit of a shocker. And people who have autoimmune antibodies, they’re like cockroaches. If you have one, you’re bound to have more. So, polyautoimmunity is rapidly becoming a norm. And autoimmunity, of course, is a state in which your body is basically attacking itself. It’s destroying its own tissues in a highly inflammatory way. And, again, there’s a lot you can do. But conventional medicine, at this point, is not really equipped to do very much to help with that. They mostly put people on prednisone, which is a horrible substance, or they’re doing some interesting things now with low-dose Naltrexone. So, anyway, to get back to your friend’s, or your Facebook question, I think his name was Dan, yes, stress is the biggest thing that we’ve got. And, you know, we’re designed to be in a calm, parasympathetic, relaxed state 99.99 percent of the time. And the other .1 percent of the time, the saber-toothed tiger jumps out from behind the bush and chases us around a little bit, hopefully we survive the ordeal, and then we get to pick up our umbrella drink again and sit back down and relax. And what we have today is exactly the opposite of this: 99.99 percent of the time we’re being chased around by saber-toothed tigers 24-7, and the .1 percent of the time, if we’re lucky, we get a trip to Tahiti. And I don’t know who these fabled people are; I wouldn’t get that. And, you know, all people really accomplish with that is really stressing out the Tahitians. You know? Guy: That’s right. Stuart: And their livers with all of the alcohol that they drink while they’re on holiday. Nora: Exactly. Exactly. We lead extraordinarily unnatural lives. And that’s one reason why I wrote the book I did. You notice that the subtitle of my book is “Beyond the Paleo Diet for Total Health and a Longer Life” because we don’t live in the same world our ancestors did. There are things that; whatever it was, whatever we had available to us as food over the bulk of our evolutionary history, you know, for nearly three-point-whatever million years, certainly would have established our nutritional requirements, would have established our physiological makeup. And we have to look at that. To me, it’s an essential starting place. There are principles to be had. I mean, there is no such thing; more is less is no such thing as a true Paleolithic diet anymore. I mean, how many wooly mammoth steaks do you find in restaurants and things? It’s the kind of thing where what we’re left with are some of the principles that our ancestors lived by. And those principles are basically that we had a diet that was largely based in animal-sourced foods that was supplemented with various types of plant material as seasonally or climatically available. And as we were able to, as we had the technology in order to process. Again, cooking would have made a lot of plant foods a lot more edible to us than a lot of wild plant foods; a lot of wild plant foods have toxic compounds in them that would have been detrimental to us in any significant quantity. And the amount of calories you would burn just simply by selectively picking and processing these plant foods would have far exceeded their caloric value and nutrient value to us. So, I think that plant foods are probably more important to us now, in fact than they were in our evolutionary past. Because of their phytonutrient content, because of the anti-oxidant content, because we’re facing so many more pollutants in our air, water, and food supply now. And we’re facing genetically modified organisms and so many other things that we need bigger buffers. And we still need those same principles. And we still require animal-sourced foods to get certain nutrients. There are some things that can only be gotten in animal-sourced foods effectively, and some things that are best gotten in animal-sourced foods. Plant foods, I think, are more important to us now than they ever used to be. And so, again, sugar and starch were never essential to us and they’re not essential to us now. It’s just; sugars, of course, are a known vector for free radical activity, for the production of advanced glycation end products or AGEs, appropriately enough, because that’s what ages us. Glycation is a process by which fats and proteins combine with sugars to become sort of misshapen and start to malfunction. And it’s a critical; and then you end up with proteins cross-linking and degrading in the presence of these things and it’s a key part of how we age. But also insulin is a very, very key aging hormone as well. And the less insulin we produce, as it turns out, because part of what I base my book on, too, is really new information from modern longevity; human longevity research. And all the evidence points to the fact that the less insulin that you produce in the course of your life, the less insulin you require, I should say, in the course of your life, the longer you’re gonna live and the healthier you’re gonna be, by far. And, of course, the primary macronutrient that seems to have an elevating effect on insulin are sugars and starches. So, what I advocate for is eating relatively sugar and starch free. You know: eat a few berries when they’re in season or something like that. But I wouldn’t be making a point of incorporating sugars and starches in my daily diet. What I would be doing is moderating my protein intake and then eating as much fat as I need to in order to satisfy my appetite while also adding the fibrous vegetables and XXfruits?XX for both. Guy: What would a typical day of Nora’s life look like in food-wise? Nora: Well, a lot of mornings I will either cook, scramble, say, a duck egg in a little duck fat. Duck fat’s my new butter. Oh my God, it’s delicious. Or, one of my favorite breakfasts, just because it’s so quick and easy, involves taking a small; actually, probably just half of a small bowl of skinless chicken thigh and broiling that for, like, six minutes.  I know it doesn’t sound that great, but it’s actually a very quick way to cool it. It’s actually a very safe way to cook it. It tends to preserve; the fats don’t oxidize as readily. And then I’ll slather it to swimming in coconut oil and then put a bunch of curry and garlic salt and that sort of thing on it and just sort of enjoy that. The fat, of course, that I add to it is extremely satiating. Sometimes I’ll use a chimichurri sauce or something like that as well, which is marvelously satiating and delicious as well. And if I haven’t eaten anything by; I’ll eat that at maybe 7 in the morning. If I haven’t eaten anything by 1 or 2 in the afternoon, by that point I’m starting to think, yeah, I’m kind of hungry, it would be nice to eat something. But the difference is between that dependence on carbohydrate and eating that starchy breakfast and all of the mid-morning snacks and whatever, your average person dependent on carbohydrates for their primary fuel were to go, you know, six or more hours without their next meal, they would have snakes growing out of their hair, probably. You know? There would be mental fog, there would be fatigue, there would be cravings. There would be an attitude of: “If I don’t eat something soon, somebody’s gonna die.” And I don’t experience those things. There’s only one way that we’re supposed to feel before we eat and that’s hungry. And there’s only one way that we’re supposed to feel after we eat, and that’s not hungry. If, prior to eating, if you’ve gone a few hours without eating something and you’re feeling tired or jittery or irritable or something that rhymes with “itchy,” and, if, after eating, you feel more energized, or, if, after eating, you feel more drowsy. If any of that sounds like you in any way, shape, or form, you basically have a blood sugar problem. None of those things are normal. None of those things are supposed to happen. If you haven’t eaten in awhile, you’re supposed to feel hungry. That’s normal. And then, once you eat, you’re not hungry anymore. But you’re not supposed to be more energized or more fatigued after a meal. That’s the difference. Guy: That’s pretty much nearly everyone I know, to a degree. Nora: Well, it is. Guy: Yeah. Nora: And think about. . . So, remember that analogy with the woodstove. How, if you’re having to heat your house with nothing but kindling, you’re spending your day constantly preoccupied with where that next handful of fuel is coming from to run your metabolic fire. Who do you suppose profits when the world is eating in that sort of fashion? You know, listen, there isn’t a single multinational corporation on Earth that I can think of that doesn’t stand to profit handsomely that isn’t heavily invested in every man, woman, and child on the planet being dependent on carbohydrates as their primary source of fuel. It’s cheap, it’s profitable, and it keeps us hungry and it also keeps us sick. And it keeps us quite vulnerable. Now, most people aren’t more than two missed meals away from a state of total mental and physical chaos, honestly, and metabolic chaos. And that makes us sort of malleable. And it’s a very; there is nothing more destabilizing to the body and brain than sugar and starch, honestly. Because you end up with this sort of wave of rushes of glucose that are then being suppressed by insulin, and then cravings again and another meal of raising the blood sugar back up and another crash. And so many people, their energy patterns and their mental energy patterns and their cognitive functioning patterns and their moods and everything else look like this all day long. That’s the way that they’re eating. And, again, if you’re relying on fat as your primary source of fuel, you’re free. You know? You eat as you choose to eat when it’s convenient for you to eat. You’re able to make healthier choices because you’re not sitting there craving something going half out of your mind with cravings and just trying really hard to exercise discipline and trying not to eat that dessert that you know is gonna pack the pounds on. It’s just sort of a natural thing, you know. When I see dessert. . . I used to love desserts. I used to love bread and pasta and things like that. Now, when I see them, I look at them the way most people are looked at by their cat. I look right through it. I just don’t see that it’s there. They come by with a dessert cart after a meal in a restaurant and I look at that. It’s not like, “Oh, I shouldn’t.” It’s, “Eh.” Guy: Fair enough. We have time for one more Facebook question, and it will tie into, you mentioned the fat. Neil Nabbefeld asks, “Is dairy truly bad for humans?” I think because of the argument within Paleo: should we eat dairy, shouldn’t we eat dairy. I’d love to hear your thoughts. Nora: Right. Well, again, I say “beyond the Paleo diet,” so. . . I don’t consider myself, you know, religiously paleo. Although I believe that those fundamental principles have a lot to teach us and that they have to be a starting place. It’s very clear that there were human people groups traditionally, not Paleolithically, but traditionally, seemed to do quite well in Weston Price’s time on things like raw milk and also fermented products made from raw milk. Certainly the Masai drank a lot of whole-fat, raw milk and that sort of a thing and it certainly hasn’t done them any harm, at least traditionally. That said, what most people call milk and dairy today is not something that you could even get a baby cow to drink. Right? It’s heavily processed, it’s been adulterated, it’s been homogenized, it’s been pasteurized. All of the enzyme value of it is completely gone; it’s been obliterated through the pasteurization process. The animals are being stuffed full of recombinant bovine growth hormones and things like that, which. . . One of the other hats that I wore once upon a time, I was involved in doing some veterinary work and I remember going around to some of these large dairies and other livestock facilities and seeing cows, and we’re not even talking big factory operations. Relatively moderate operations. And every single cow in these milking lines all had mastitis. All of them. And they were all on antibiotics. And you would go to milk them by hand and you would see literally pus coming out, which is obviously incredibly gross. But nobody cared about that because all of it was basically going into these huge steel vats where it was all getting boiled and sterilized. So, I guess if you don’t mind drinking sterilized pus, that’s fine, but it’s not my beverage of choice. So, conventionally generated dairy, to me, is not food. And I have no use for that. For some people, I think raw milk, and there are certain types of components of raw milk, like early; like colostrum and whey that in some people can be highly therapeutic. Now, that said, roughly half of everybody that has a gluten intolerance also has a casein intolerance. I happen to be one of them. I can’t do dairy at all. My immune system is highly reactive to dairy products, and that includes heavy cream and butter, I am sorry to say. And I know in previous editions of my book I extolled the virtues of butter and heavy cream, and for some people I think those foods are probably fine. But I didn’t know that I had an immunological reactivity to dairy until I tested with appropriately sensitive testing. And the moment I eliminated those foods from my diet, it’s like 20 pounds fell off of me I didn’t even know I had. There were just so much inflammation all the time that I didn’t even realize that I was struggling with something until it go removed as an issue. So, for some people, I think dairy can be fine. For some, it can even be therapeutic, from healthy, entirely pasture-fed raw dairy sources. From, again, trusted raw dairy sources; dairies that are really doing it the right way, that are sanitary and whatever else. I think that there’s a place for that, not on my dinner plate, but for some people I think that there can be a place for that. So, it is an unnatural food for adult people, though. Animals, I mean, and you can always make that argument that we’re the only species that drinks milk past infancy and we’re drinking the milk of not human milk but cow’s milk. Guy: Interestingly enough as well, I’m not sure what the laws are in the U.S., but here, if you want to buy real milk you have to buy bath milk because it’s illegal to sell. Nora: What’s it called? Guy: It’s called “Cleopatra’s Bath Milk.” Nora: Ah, I see. You know, there are some raw dairies around the country that will call it “pet milk.” Guy: Yeah, you always feel like a drug smuggler when you have to go and buy it. Nora: There are also these what are called “cow share” programs. I don’t know if you have that there, where people actually go to a farmer who has a cow, be it a nice Jersey, a XXunintelligibleXX cow that is eating a nice, grass-fed diet, and they’ll buy an interest in the animal so that they’re basically considered an owner. And there are no laws against drinking the milk of your own animal. So, they kind of get around the law with that. I don’t know if Australia has these cow-share programs or not. Stuart: I think they exist, actually. Yeah, I do think they exist. Nora: I would say that, where dairy is concerned, if you’re drinking raw milk and you’re still symptomatic, you might want to lose the dairy. And I would actually say fly over to the States and get some Cyrex testing and figure out whether you have that kind of sensitivity or not; whether you have intolerances. But the only other way to really figure it out is by completely eliminating that food from your diet for a period of time and seeing what happens. Guy: One last question, Nora. Do you have any books in the pipeline? Nora: You know, that’s a great question. I’ve got a couple of e-books in the pipeline. And, of course, I’m working so hard and creating all these talks I’m getting this year it gives me precious little time outside of my very full-time practice. I see clients for eight hours hours a day during the week and it doesn’t leave a lot left over to work on new projects. I have two e-books in the pipeline. I have the outline for and some of the preliminary stages of a new book I’m working on, but it’s going to be some time unless. . . There are some projects I’m working on that might change things a little bit for me that may allow me to put much more of a full-time effort into putting out new material, which I’m really passionate about wanting to do. There’s so much more new, wonderful information and I am so very, very excited to impart it. And, again, right now I’m working seven days a week, and there’s very little time in that seven-day-a-week work to actually create new things, but I’m doing it as I can. So, the one book is actually, that I’m hoping to get out before the others, is actually a bit of a workbook; kind of a quick-start guide to primal health, to kind of help people implement healthy dietary changes and help them understand what they need to do, kind of hand-hold them a little bit, what to expect. Give them a few more details; a little more hand-holding through that process so that they’ve got something that they can work with to help them through it. Guy: Yeah, absolutely. I think that Gary Taubes did something similar, didn’t he? Because he released “Good Calories, Bad Calories,” which was just this monster of a book. And then he brought out a later edition which was a bit more, sort of, daily practical things that you could apply. Nora: Right. Right. Which is, you know, it’s needed and it’s something I’m working on. Lots of things, actually, coming down the pike. There are lots of projects in the pipeline. But nothing I can give you as a, “Well, as of this date it’s gonna be released.” Guy: As long as we know there’s something coming in the future, that’s the main thing. So, you’re coming to Sydney to speak and it’s gonna be mid-May in Sydney. Is that the only talk you’re doing or. . . Nora: I’m also going to be doing a talk, oh, boy, what is the date? In Dubbo. Guy: Ah, I did see that, actually. I can put the dates up on this blog post. Nora: Those dates are available, I believe, on my website and the Dubbo event should be a lot of fun. I’ve got some friends there and I think they are already actually selling tickets for that as well. Guy: Fantastic. Nora: Yeah. I’m excited. The MINDD foundation conference seems to be a marvelous event and I’ll be really happy to impart a lot of information, some of which will be familiar to people if they’ve seen me talk before, but some of it’s going to be quite new, and I think probably pretty interesting. Guy: Well, we’re certainly looking forward to it and I’m sure there will be a lot of other people. Well, look, Nora, thanks for today. It’s absolutely been mind-blowing again. Amazing. I look forward to meeting you again in person, in Sydney. Nora: Absolutely. I look forward to meeting you, Stuart, and seeing you again, Guy, will be terrific. You’re really wonderful to have me on your program and it’s been really enjoyable. Guy: Awesome. Stuart: Safe journey and we will see you next month. Nora: Sounds awesome. Guy: Awesome. Stuart: Thank you, Nora. Thank you. Guy: Goodbye. Nora: Goodbye.


It is a chemical maze: Food Additive List

180 Nutrition Food Additive List

Ever wondered what the difference is between E235 Natamycin and E102 Tartrazine? We did too, so we thought we would put this food additive list together with it’s possible side effects. If you want to find out more about a particular additive, simply click the link and it will take you to wikipedia.

INS Additive Name Possible Side Effects
E100 Curcumin Prohibited in infant food. Limit intake if suffering liver disorder or gallstones.
E101 Riboflavin Prohibited in infant food.
E101a Riboflavin-5′-phosphate Prohibited in infant food.
E102 Tartrazine Known to provoke asthma attacks and urticaria (nettle rash) in children, headaches, insomnia; also linked to thyroid tumors, chromosomal damage, urticaria (hives) and hyperactivity; tartrazine sensitivity is also linked to aspirin sensitivity.
E104 Quinoline Yellow Hyperactivity, asthma, may be toxic when combined with other additives.
E107 Yellow 7G People who suffer Asthma may also show an allergic reaction to it; typical products are soft drinks; banned in Australia and USA.
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF Urticaria (hives), rhinitis (runny nose), nasal congestion, allergies, hyperactivity, behavioural problems, vomiting, kidney tumors, chromosomal damage, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, indigestion, distaste for food; seen increased incidence of tumours in animals; banned in Norway.
E120 Cochineal Dermatitis, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E122 Azorubine Hyperactivity, behavioural problems, reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in Sweden, USA, Austria and Norway.
E123 Amaranth Asthma, eczema and hyperactivity; it caused birth defects and foetal deaths in some animal tests, possibly also cancer; banned in the USA, Russia, Austria and Norway and other countries.
E124 Ponceau 4R Reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; banned in USA & Norway, prohibited in infant food.
E127 Erythrosine Can increase thyroid hormone levels and lead to hyperthyroidism, was shown to cause thyroid cancer in rats in a study in 1990; banned in
January 1990; banned in Norway.
E128 Red 2G Banned in Australia and many other places except UK.
E129 Allura Red AC Considered not safe due to conflicting test results; allura red has also been connected with cancer in mice; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway.
E131 Patent Blue V Banned in Australia, USA and Norway.
E132 Indigotine May cause nausea, asthma, hyperactivity, vomiting, high blood pressure, skin rashes, breathing problems and other allergic reactions. Banned in Norway.
E133 Brilliant blue FCF Suspected neurotoxicity, hyperactivity, asthma.
E140 Chlorophylis Prohibited in infant food.
E141 Copper complexes of chloropyll and chlorophyllins Prohibited in infant food.
E142 Green S Asthma, insomnia, allergies, banned inSweden, USA and Norway
E150a Caramel Gastro-intestinal problems, prohibited in infant food.
E150b Caustic sulphite caramel Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.
E150c Ammonia caramel Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.
E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel Asthma, may affect the liver, prohibited in infant food.
E151 Brilliant Black BN Asthma, possible carcinogen, prohibited in infant food.
E153 Vegetable carbon Possible carcinogen, mildly toxic by skin contact.
E154 Brown FK Banned in USA
E155 Brown HT Reactions in asthmatics and people allergic to aspirin; also known to induce skin sensitivity; banned in Denmark, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, USA, Norway.
E160a Carotene May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E160b Annatto Known to cause urticaria (nettle rash), prohibited in infant food.
E160c Paprika extract May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E160d Lycopene May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E160e Beta-apo-8′-carotenal (C 30) May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E160f Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8′-carotenic acid (C 30) No adverse effects are known.
E161b Lutein May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E161g Canthaxanthin May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E162 Beetroot Red No adverse effects are known, prohibited in infant food.
E163 Anthocyanins Seems safe, prohibited in infant food.
E170 Calcium carbonate Toxic at ‘high doses.’
E171 Titanium dioxide Suspected reproductive toxicity, prohibited in infant food.
E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides Potentially toxic, prohibited in infant food.
E173 Aluminium Aggrevates lung and kidney disorders, prohibited in infant food.
E174 Silver Toxic in large doses, prohibited in infant food.
E175 Gold Toxic in large doses, prohibited in infant food.
E180 Latolrubine BK No adverse effects are known.
E181 Tannic acid May cause allergies, prohibited in infant food.
E200 Sorbic acid Behavioural problems, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E201 Sodium sorbate Headaches, skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E202 Potassium sorbate Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E203 Calcium sorbate Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E210 Benzoic acid, also known as flowers of benzoin, phenlycarboxylic acid Reputed to cause neurological disorders and to react with sulphur bisulphite (222), shown to provoke hyperactivity in children; obtained from Benzoin, prohibited in infant food.
E211 Sodium benzoate Skin irritations, digestive disorders, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E212 Potassium benzoate People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions.
E213 Calcium benzoate People with a history of allergies may show allergic reactions.
E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate Banned in some countries.
E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate Banned in Australia.
E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate Possible contact allergen, prohibited in infant food.
E217 Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate Banned in some countries.
E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate Allergic reactions possible, mainly affecting the skin.
E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate Asthma, eczema.
E220 Sulphur dioxide Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E221 Sodium sulphite Destroyes Vitamin B, asthma, prohibited in infant food.
E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E223 Sodium metabisulphite Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E224 Potassium metabisulphite Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E225 Potassium sulphite Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E226 Calcium sulphite Bronchial problems, flushing, low blood pressure, tingling, and anaphylactic shock.
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite Allergy, Asthma, Digestive Disorders, Reduce Vitamin Absorbption.
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite Can provoke asthma attacks and difficult to metabolise for those with impaired kidney function, also destroys vitamin B1.
E230 Biphenyl Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.
E231 Orthophenyl phenol Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.
E233 Thiabendazole Headaches, intestine upset, skin disorders, prohibited in infant food.
E234 Nisin Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, prohibited in infant food.
E235 Natamycin Can cause nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhoea and skin irritation.
E236 Formic acid Allergy, Cancer, Kidney Problems.
E237 Sodium formate Banned in some countries.
E238 Calcium formate Banned in some countries.
E239 Hexamethylene tetramine Banned in some countries.
E249 Potassium nitrite Shortness of breath, dizziness and headaches; potential carcinogen; not permitted in foods for infant and young children
E250 Sodium nitrite May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries.
E251 Sodium nitrate May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions, potentially carcinogenic, restricted in many countries.
E252 Potassium nitrate May provoke hyperactivity and other adverse reactions; potentially carcinogenic; restricted in many countries.
E260 Acetic acid Respiratory problems
E261 Potassium acetate Avoided by people with impaired kidney function.
E262 Sodium acetate Aviod if sensitive to vinagar.
E263 Calcium acetate Aviod if sensitive to vinagar.
E264 Ammonium acetate Nausea and vomiting.
E270 Lactic acid Difficult for babies to metabolise.
E280 Propionic acid Headaches, migranes, skin disorders, liver toxicity
E281 Sodium propionate May be linked to migraines.
E282 Calcium propionate May be linked to migraines.
E283 Potassium propionate May be linked to migraines.
E290 Carbon dioxide Prohibited in infant food.
E296 Malic acid Infants and young children should avoid.
E297 Fumaric acid Prohibited in infant food.
E300 Ascorbic acid Check for GM status.
E301 Sodium ascorbate Check for GM status.
E302 Calcium ascorbate Check for GM status.
E303 Potassium ascorbate Check for GM status.
E304 Ascorbyl palmitate No known side effects.
E306 Tocopherol-rich extract No known side effects.
E307 alpha-tocopherol No known side effects.
E308 gamma-tocopherol No known side effects.
E309 delta-tocopherol No known side effects.
E310 Propyl gallate Not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.
E311 Octyl gallate Not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.
E312 Dodecyl gallate May cause gastric or skin irritation, gallates are not permitted in foods for infants and small children because of their known tendency to cause the blood disorder, methemoglobinemia.
E317 Erythorbic acid No known side effects.
E318 Sodium erythorbate No known side effects.
E319 Tert-ButylHydroQuinone (TBHQ) May cause nausea, vomiting, delirium.
E320 Butylated hydroxy-anisole (BHA) Not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects.
E321 Butylated hydroxy-toluene (BHT) Not permitted in infant foods, can provoke an allergic reaction in some people, may trigger hyperactivity and other intolerances; serious concerns over carcinogenicity and estrogenic effects.
E322 Lecithins Can upset the stomach,
kill the appetite and cause profuse sweating.
E325 Sodium lactate Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.
E326 Potassium lactate Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.
E327 Calcium lactate Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.
E328 Ammonium lactate Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.
E329 Magnesium lactate Young children with lactose intolerance may show adverse reactions.
E330 Citric acid Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E331 Sodium citrates Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E332 Potassium citrates Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E333 Calcium citrates Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E334 Tartaric acid Laxative effect.
E335 Sodium tartrates Not permitted in infant foods.
E336 Potassium tartrates Not permitted in infant foods.
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate Avoid if high blood pressure/liver issues. Not permitted in infant foods.
E338 Phosphoric acid Tooth decay, calcium loss in bones, neuro toxin. Not permitted in infant foods.
E339 Sodium phosphates High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E340 Potassium phosphates High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphorus equilibrium
E341 Calcium phosphates Calcium defficiency. Not permitted in infant foods.
E343 Magnesium phosphates Calcium defficiency. Not permitted in infant foods.
E350 Sodium malates Not permitted in infant foods.
E351 Potassium malate Not permitted in infant foods.
E352 Calcium malates Not permitted in infant foods.
E353 Metatartaric acid Not permitted in infant foods.
E354 Calcium tartrate Not permitted in infant foods.
E355 Adipic acid Allergies
E357 Potassium adipate Not permitted in infant foods.
E363 Succinic acid Diarrhoea. Not permitted in infant foods.
E365 Sodium fumarate Not permitted in infant foods.
E366 Potassium fumarate Not permitted in infant foods.
E367 Calcium fumarate Not permitted in infant foods.
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone No known side effects.
E375 Niacin Doses in excess of 1,000 mg per day can cause liver damage, diabetes, gastritis, eye damage, and elevated blood levels of uric acid (which can cause gout).
E380 Tri-ammonium citrate May interfere with liver and pancreas function
E381 Ammonium ferric citrates Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E385 Calcium disodium EDTA Kidney damage, muscle cramps. Not permitted in infant foods.
E400 Alginic acid Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.
E401 Sodium alginate Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.
E402 Potassium alginate Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.
E403 Ammonium alginate Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.
E404 Calcium alginate Large quantities can inhibit the absorption of some nutrients.
E405 Propylene glycol alginate Not permitted in infant foods.
E406 Agar Flatulence, bloating.
E407 Carrageenan Linked to toxic hazards, including ulcers and cancer; the most serious concerns relate to degraded carrageenan, which is not a permitted additive; however, native carrageenan, which is used, may become degraded in the gut
E410 Locust bean gum May lower cholesterol levels.
E412 Guar gum Can cause nausea, flatulence
and cramps, may reduce cholesterol levels.
E413 Tragacanth Possible contact allergy.
E414 Acacia Possible allergen, soothes irritations of mucous membranes.
E415 Xanthan gum Diarrhoea, bloating.
E416 Karaya gum Possible allergen.
E417 Tara gum Flatulence, bloating.
E420 Sorbitol Not permitted in foods for infants and young children, can cause gastric disturbance
E421 Mannitol Not permitted in infant
foods due to its ability to cause diarrhea and kidney dysfunction, also may cause nausea, vomiting; typical products are low calorie foods
E422 Glycerol Has been shown to protect against DNA damage induced by tumor promoters, ultraviolet lights and radiation,
presumably via free radical scavenging; large quantities can cause headaches, thirst, nausea and high blood sugar levels.
E425 Konjac No known side effects.
E430 Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E431 Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E432 Polysorbate 20 People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E433 Polysorbate 80 People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E434 Polysorbate 40 People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E435 Polyoxyethylene (20) People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E436 Polyoxyethylene (20) People intolerant of propylene glycol should also avoid the group of 430-E436.
E440a Pectin Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E440b Amidated pectin Large quantities may cause temporary flatulence or intestinal discomfort
E441 Gelatine Mmay contain 220, asthmatics and people allergic to sulphites beware!
E442 Ammonium phosphatides No known side effects.
E450 Diphosphates High intakes may upset the calcium/phosphate equilibrium
E451 Triphosphates No known side effects.
E452 Polyphosphates No known side effects.
E459 Beta-cyclodextrine No known side effects.
E460 Cellulose No known side effects.
E461 Methyl cellulose Can cause flatulence, distension, intestinal obstruction
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Flatulence, bloating.
E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Flatulence, bloating.
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E466 Carboxy methyl cellulose Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E468 Cross linked sodium carboxy methyl cellulose National Cancer Institute of America states it “should be forbidden as a food additive”.
E469 Sodium caseinate No known side effects.
E470a Fatty acids salts No known side effects.
E470b Fatty acids salts No known side effects.
E471 Mono- & di- glycerides of fatty acids No known side effects.
E472a No known side effects.
E472b No known side effects.
E472c May provoke symptions similar to MSG.
E472d No known side effects.
E472e No known side effects.
E472f No known side effects.
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids May cause stomach pain, nausea, bloating, diarrhoea.
E474 Sucroglycerides Not registered for use in Australia.
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids No known side effects.
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate No known side effects.
E477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids No known side effects.
E478 May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, theist, dizziness and mental confusion. Avoid it.
E479b Likely GM soy.
E480 Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate Eye irritations, laxative effect.
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate No known side effects.
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate No known side effects.
E483 Stearyl tartrate Banned in Australia.
E491 Sorbitan monostearate No known side effects.
E492 Sorbitan tristearate No known side effects.
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate Banned in Australia.
E494 Sorbitan mono-oleate Banned in Australia.
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate Banned in Australia.
E500 Sodium carbonates Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E501 Potassium carbonates Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E503 Ammonium carbonates Irritant to mucous membranes.
E504 Magnesium carbonate Large concentrations can cause intestinal problems, such as bloating, constipation and diarrhoea.
E507 Hydrochloric acid Safe in small quantities.
E508 Potassium chloride Large quantities can cause gastric ulceration.
E509 Calcium chloride No known side effects.
E510 Ammonium chloride Should be avoided by people with impaired liver or kidney function.
E511 Magnesium chloride Magnesium is an essential mineral.
E513 Sulphuric acid Not permitted in Australia
E514 Sodium sulphates May upset the body’s water balance
E515 Potassium sulphates Gastric erosion in large quantities.
E516 Calcium sulphate No known side effects.
E518 Magnesium sulphate Llaxative.
E519 Copper sulphate Essential mineral.
E520 Aluminium sulfate Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.
E521 Aluminium sodium sulfate No known side effects.
E522 Aluminium potassium sulfate Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulfate Aluminium inhibits the uptake of B-vitamins. It may also influence liver function in high concentrations.
E524 Sodium hydroxide Not permitted in Australia.
E525 Potassium hydroxide Not permitted in Australia.
E526 Calcium hydroxide No adverse effects in small quantities.
E527 Ammonium hydroxide Not permitted in Australia.
E528 Magnesium hydroxide Not permitted in Australia.
E529 Calcium oxide Safe in small quantities.
E530 Magnesium oxide Not permitted in Australia.
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide Safe in small quantities.
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide Reduces oxygen transport in the blood, which in turn may cause breathing difficulties, dizziness or headache.
E540 Dicalcium diphosphate Not permitted in Australia.
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate Possible link to osteoporosis, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease.
E542 Edible Bone phosphate Cannot be used by vegans, vegetarians, Muslims, Jews or Hindus. The product is made of animal bones, such as from pigs and cattle.
E544 Calcium polyphosphates Not permitted in Australia.
E545 Ammonium polyphosphates Not permitted in Australia.
E551 Silicon dioxide No adverse effect.
E552 Calcium silicate No adverse effect.
E553a Magnesium silicates Not permitted in Australia.
E553b Talc Has been linked to stomach cancer.
E554 Sodium aluminium silicate known to cause placental problems in pregnancy and has been linked to Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s, bone loss.
E556 Calcium aluminium silicate No known adverse effects.
E558 Bentonite Known to block skin pores.
E559 Aluminium silicate (Kaolin) Known to block skin pores.
E570 Stearic acid Prohibited in infant foods.
E572 Magnesium stearate Inhalation of the powder is harmful.
E575 Glucono delta-lactone No known adverse effects.
E576 Sodium gluconate Not permitted in Australia.
E577 Potassium gluconate Mildly toxic by ingestion.
E578 Calcium gluconate May cause stomach upsets and heart problems.
E579 Ferrous gluconate Safe in small amounts
E585 Ferrous lactate No known adverse effects.
E620 Glutamic acid Might cause similar problems as MSG(621), young children should avoid it.
E621 Monosodium glutamate Adverse effects appear in some asthmatic people, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.
E622 Monopotassium glutamate Can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps.
E623 Calcium diglutamate Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E624 Monoammonium glutamate Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E625 Magnesium diglutamate Can provoke symptoms similar to MSG.
E626 Guanylic acid Asthmatic people should avoid.
E627 Disodium guanylate May trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.
E629 Calcium guanylate May trigger gout.
E631 Disodium inosinate May trigger gout, not permitted in foods for infants and young children.
E633 Calcium inosinate May trigger gout.
E635 Disodium 5′-ribonucleotide May be associated with itchy skin rashes up to 30 hours after ingestion; rashes may vary from mild to dramatic.
E636 Maltol In large quantities it can help aluminium pass into the brain to cause Alzheimer’s disease.
E637 Ethyl maltol Some countries ban it for babies and young children.
E640 Glycine Mildly toxic if ingested.
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane No known adverse effects.
E901 Beeswaxes Occasionally causes allergic reactions.
E903 Carnauba wax Occasionally causes allergic reactions.
E904 Shellac Occasionally causes irritations of the skin
E905 Paraffins Listed as having teratogenic properties linked to bowel cancer and can cause defects.
E907 Refined microcrystalline wax Banned in Australia.
E913 Lanolin Allergies.
E920 L-Cysteine hydrochloride Is a known neurotoxin.
E921 L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate Is a known neurotoxin.
E924 Potassium bromate Large quantities can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, pain
E925 Chlorine Possible health concerns.
E926 Chlorine dioxide Possible health concerns
E927 Azodicarbonamide Banned in Australia.
E928 Benzoyl peroxide Asthmatics and people with a history of allergies should avoid.
E931 Nitrogen No known adverse effects.
E932 Nitrous oxide Safe in small quantities
E950 Acesulphane potassium Possible carcinogen in humans, caused cancer in test animals.
E951 Aspartame Too many adverse effects possible to list!
E952 Cyclamic acid Banned in the US and UK due its links with cancer.
E954 Saccharines It interferes with normal blood coagulation, blood sugar levels and digestive function.
E957 Thaumatin No known adverse effects.
E965 Maltitol laxative in high concentrations.
E967 Xylitol May cause bloating and flatulence.
E999 Quillaia extract Banned in a number of countries.
E1103 Invertase Little information known at this time.
E1100 Amylase Allergies.
E1200 Polydextrose Seems safe in small doses
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Excess may cause damage to the lungs or kidneys, gas and faecal impaction.
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone May cause damage to kidneys and stay in the system for up to a year.
E1400 Dextrin No known adverse effects, but not fully evaluated for safety.
E1401 Modified starch No known adverse effects.
E1402 Alkaline modified starch No known adverse effects.
E1403 Bleached starch Asthma.
E1404 Oxidized starch High concentrations cause diarrhoea and kidney defects in animals.
E1410 Monostarch phosphate No known adverse effects, further testing required.
E1412 Distarch phosphate No known adverse effects, further testing required.
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate No known adverse effects, further testing required.
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required. May cause diarrhoea.
E1420 Acetylated starch No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required. May cause diarrhoea.
E1421 Acetylated starch No known adverse effects. May cause diarrhoea.
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
E1423 Distarch glycerine No known adverse effects.
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
E1441 Hydroxy propyl distarch glycerine May cause diarrhoea.
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch No known adverse effects at low levels, further testing required.
E1505 Triethyl citrate Reaction reported from those with low tolerence to MSG.
E1510 Ethanol Suspected neurotoxic hazard, danger to persons with Candida and allergies.
E1517 Glycerol acetates May cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhoea, thirst, dizziness and mental confusion.
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate Irritations.
E1520 Propylene glycol Suspected as a neurotoxic hazard.

Personally, we are advocates for real whole food at 180 Nutrition and always look to cut out food additives and chemicals from our diet as much as possible. Hence why there are no food additives in our 180 Natural Protein Supplement.

For more information, go to The Chemical Maze.

180 Nutrition Partners

Here is a list of CrossFit boxes, gyms and personal trainers throughout Australia who are currently stocking 180 Natural Protein SuperFood. If you would like a second opinion regarding our unique natural protein powder, don’t take our word for it, feel free to contact any of our partners below.

We have also been proud sponsors of some of the CrossFit games within Australia. Here is a list of both:

Sponsored Crossfit Games

The links below are the Crossfit games 180 Nutrition sponsored in 2011 within Australia.

The WOD Games 21/15/9 – Australia

The Immortals Team Challenge – Gold Coast

The Rex Affiliates Cup – WA

The Primal Throwdown Series – WA

180 partners within Australia

The links below are our current partners within Sydney & Australia. This will be continually updated as we grow.


Crossfit Norwest – Rob

Crossfit Ignite – Darren

Crossfit Athletic – Paul

Crossfit Never Quit – Bradley

Crossfit Chipping Norton – Scott

CrossFit Wagga – Brad

MIL-FIT Military Fitness Specialist – Brad

CrossFit Ballina – James & Amy


Crossfit Wired – Mandy

Crossfit Alive – Dale

Crossfit Toowoomba – Jo


Crossfit Chamber – Chadd

The Cell Crossfit – Jason

Crossfit Real World – Jason

CrossFit Cooee – Match


Crossfit Adelaide – Ben


Barefoot Health – Steve


Raw Edge CrossFit Presents: The Rex Affiliates Cup 2011

crossfit_affiliate_cupBy 180Nutrition

With our growing popularity within the CrossFit community, we are very proud and happy to be the official sponsors for CrossFit’s Rex Affiliates Cup on Saturday Nov’ 12th 2011 held by Raw Edge CrossFit. More